If you are American, SSC endorses voting in this presidential election. Andrew Gelman, Nate Silver, and Aaron Edlin calculate the chance that a single vote will determine the election ie break a tie in a state that breaks an Electoral College tie. It ranges from about one in ten million if you live in a swing state to one in a billion if you live in a very safe state. The average American has a one in sixty million chance of determining the election results.
Production Code and Motion Picture Association of America film rating system The first act of movie censorship in the United States was an statute of the State of Maine that prohibited the exhibition of prizefight films. Corbett and Robert Fitzsimmons.
Some other states followed Maine. Industrial Commission of Ohio in which the court determined that motion pictures were purely commerce and not an art, and thus not covered by the First Amendment. Popularly referred to as the "Miracle Decision", the ruling involved the short film "The Miracle", part of Roberto Rossellini 's anthology film L'Amore Between the Mutual Film and the Joseph Burstyn decisions local, state, and city censorship boards had the power to edit or ban films.
City and state censorship ordinances are nearly as old as the movies themselves, and such ordinances banning the public exhibition of "immoral" films proliferated.
Public outcry over perceived immorality in Hollywood and the movies, as well as the growing number of city and state censorship boards, led the movie studios to fear that federal regulations were not far off; so they created, inthe Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association which became the Motion Picture Association of America inan industry trade and lobby organization.
The association was headed by Will H. Haysa well-connected Republican lawyer who had previously been United States Postmaster General; and he derailed attempts to institute federal censorship over the movies.
In Hays compiled a list of subjects, culled from his experience with the various US censorship boards, which he felt Hollywood studios would be wise to avoid. He called this list "the formula" but it was popularly known as the "don'ts and be carefuls" list.
The advent of talking pictures in led to a perceived need for further enforcement. Martin Quigleythe publisher of a Chicago-based motion picture trade newspaper, began lobbying for a more extensive code that not only listed material that was inappropriate for the movies, but also contained a moral system that the movies could help to promote—specifically, a system based on Catholic theology.
Louis University, to write such a code and on March 31, the board of directors of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association adopted it formally.
This original version especially was once popularly known as the Hays Code, but it and its later revisions are now commonly called the Production Code. However, Depression economics and changing social mores resulted in the studios producing racier fare that the Code, lacking an aggressive enforcement body, was unable to redress.
This era is known as Pre-Code Hollywood. An amendment to the Code, adopted on June 13,established the Production Code Administration PCAand required all films released on or after July 1, to obtain a certificate of approval before being released. For more than thirty years following, virtually all motion pictures produced in the United States and released by major studios adhered to the code.
The Production Code was not created or enforced by federal, state, or city government. In fact, the Hollywood studios adopted the code in large part in the hopes of avoiding government censorship, preferring self-regulation to government regulation.
The enforcement of the Production Code led to the dissolution of many local censorship boards.
Meanwhile, the US Customs Department prohibited the importation of the Czech film Ecstasystarring an actress soon to be known as Hedy Lamarran action which was upheld on appeal. InJoseph I. Under Breen's leadership of the PCA, which lasted until his retirement inenforcement of the Production Code became rigid and notorious.
Breen's power to change scripts and scenes angered many writers, directors, and Hollywood moguls. The first major instance of censorship under the Production Code involved the film Tarzan and His Matein which brief nude scenes involving a body double for actress Maureen O'Sullivan were edited out of the master negative of the film.
Another famous case of enforcement involved the western The Outlawproduced by Howard Hughes. The Outlaw was denied a certificate of approval and kept out of theaters for years because the film's advertising focused particular attention on Jane Russell 's breasts.
Hughes eventually persuaded Breen that the breasts did not violate the code and the film could be shown. Some films produced outside the mainstream studio system during this time did flout the conventions of the code, such as Child Bridewhich featured a nude scene involving year-old actress Shirley Mills.
Even cartoon sex symbol Betty Boop had to change from being a flapperand began to wear an old-fashioned housewife skirt. Inin the case of Joseph Burstyn, Inc.
Wilsonthe U. Supreme Court unanimously overruled its decision and held that motion pictures were entitled to First Amendment protection, so that the New York State Board of Regents could not ban "The Miracle", a short film that was one half of L'Amorean anthology film directed by Roberto Rossellini.
Film distributor Joseph Burstyn released the film in the U. That in turn reduced the threat of government regulation that justified the Production Code, and the PCA's powers over the Hollywood industry were greatly reduced.
His film The Moon is Blueabout a young woman who tries to play two suitors off against each other by claiming that she plans to keep her virginity until marriage, was the first film to use the words "virgin", "seduce", and "mistress", and it was released without a certificate of approval.
He later made The Man with the Golden Armwhich portrayed the prohibited subject of drug abuse, and Anatomy of a Murder which dealt with rape. Preminger's films were direct assaults on the authority of the Production Code and, since they were successful, hastened its abandonment.Media and Elections.
The media are essential to democracy, and a democratic election is impossible without media. A free and fair election is not only about the freedom to vote and the knowledge of how to cast a vote, but also about a participatory process where voters engage in public debate and have adequate information about parties, policies, candidates and the election process itself in.
Articles & Blog Posts by Thomas Lifson. No sign of California Democrats boycotting In-N-Out Burger yesterday; Head of Calif Dem Party foolishly asks people to choose between party loyalty and In-N. Egypt's presidency has ratified a controversial legislation imposing regulations on social media that is says aims to crack down on fake news.
Your coming economic collapse is your biggest story in the world. Get prepared now! Hurry! jymm Come on now, they are all “good kids” just letting of a little steam. (sarc) Chaos and Riots In Sweden By “Youth” Gangs · August 24, If you are American, SSC endorses voting in this presidential election.
Andrew Gelman, Nate Silver, and Aaron Edlin calculate the chance that a single vote will determine the election (ie break a tie in a state that breaks an Electoral College tie).
It ranges from about one in ten million (if you.