Background[ edit ] InEmperor Akihito informed his advisory council that he would eventually like to retire from his demanding job. On 13 Julynational broadcaster NHK reported that the Emperor wished to abdicate in favor of his elder son Crown Prince Naruhito within a few years.
Paleothyris early Pennsylvanian -- An early captorhinomorph reptile, with no temporal fenestrae at all. Protoclepsydrops haplous early Pennsylvanian -- The earliest known synapsid reptile.
Little temporal fenestra, with all surrounding bones intact. Had amphibian-type vertebrae with tiny neural processes.
These early, very primitive synapsids are a primitive group of pelycosaurs Family in transition essay called "ophiacodonts". Archaeothyris early-mid Pennsylvanian -- A slightly later ophiacodont.
Small temporal fenestra, now with some reduced bones supratemporal. Braincase still just loosely attached to skull. Slight hint of different tooth types. Varanops early Permian -- Temporal fenestra further enlarged.
Lower jaw shows first changes in jaw musculature slight coronoid eminence. Ilium further enlarged, lower-limb musculature starts to change prominent fourth trochanter on femur.
This animal was more mobile and active. Too late to be a true ancestor, and must be a "cousin". Haptodus late Pennsylvanian -- One of the first known sphenacodonts, showing the initiation of sphenacodont features while retaining many primitive features of the ophiacodonts.
Occiput still more strongly attached to the braincase. Teeth become size-differentiated, with biggest teeth in canine region and fewer teeth overall. Neural spines on vertebrae longer. Hip strengthened by fusing to three sacral vertebrae instead of just two.
Limbs very well developed.
Dimetrodon, Sphenacodon or a similar sphenacodont late Pennsylvanian to early Permian, Ma -- More advanced pelycosaurs, clearly closely related to the first therapsids next. Dimetrodon is almost definitely a "cousin" and not a direct ancestor, but as it is known from very complete fossils, it's a good model for sphenacodont anatomy.
Teeth further differentiated, with small incisors, two huge deep- rooted upper canines on each side, followed by smaller cheek teeth, all replaced continuously. Fully reptilian jaw hinge. Vertebrae had still longer neural spines spectacularly so in Dimetrodon, which had a sailand longer transverse spines for stronger locomotion muscles.
Biarmosuchia late Permian -- A therocephalian -- one of the earliest, most primitive therapsids. Several primitive, sphenacodontid features retained: Temporal fenestra further enlarged, occupying virtually all of the cheek, with the supratemporal bone completely gone. Occipital plate slanted slightly backwards rather than forwards as in pelycosaurs, and attached still more strongly to the braincase.
Upper jaw bone maxillary expanded to separate lacrymal from nasal bones, intermediate between early reptiles and later mammals. Still no secondary palate, but the vomer bones of the palate developed a backward extension below the palatine bones.
This is the first step toward a secondary palate, and with exactly the same pattern seen in cynodonts.LVN to RN Transition. For students that already have their Vocational Nursing License, DNI offers the LVN to RN Transition program that takes into account .
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