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Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or Parchment paper background moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand. Historically, manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls volumen in Latin or books codex, plural codices.
Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrusand on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived.
In India, the palm leaf manuscriptwith a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the 19th century. Paper spread from China via the Islamic world to Europe by the 14th century, and by the late 15th century had largely replaced parchment for many purposes.
When Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made simultaneously by scribes in a scriptoriumeach making a single copy from an original that was declaimed aloud.
The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy -wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried Nag Hammadi library or stored in dry caves Dead Sea scrolls.
Manuscripts in Tocharian languageswritten on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of the Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum.
The oldest known dated Arabic manuscript on paper in Leiden University Librarydated AD Lectionary Inside the letter is a picture of a master in cathedra expounding on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates.
Initial "V" rendered as "U" of "Vita brevis, ars vero longa", or "Life is short, but the art is long". Image of two facing pages of the illuminated manuscript of "Isagoge", fols. On the Parchment paper background of the left hand page is an illuminated letter "D" - initial of "De urinarum differencia negocium" The matter of the differences of urines.
Inside the letter is a picture of a master on bench pointing at a raised flask while lecturing on the "Book on urines" of Theophilus. The right hand page is only shown in part. On its very bottom is an illuminated letter "U" - initial of "Urina ergo est colamentum sanguinis" Urine is the filtrate of the blood.
Inside the letter is a picture of a master holding up a flask while explaining the diagnostic significance of urine to a student or a patient. Ironically, the manuscripts that were being most carefully preserved in the libraries of antiquity are virtually all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in relatively moist Italian or Greek conditions; only those works copied onto parchment, usually after the general conversion to Christianity, have survived, and by no means all of those.
Originally, all books were in manuscript form. In China, and later other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century. The earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about Manuscript copying of books continued for a least a century, as printing remained expensive.
Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century. Because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been transmitted in manuscript.
This type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves that were inscribed. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate.
In Burmathe kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, and even on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Etruscan texts were similarly inscribed on thin gold plates: Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts.
The study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography. In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian eramanuscripts were written without spaces between the words scriptio continuawhich makes them especially hard for the untrained to read.
Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and usually dating from the 4th century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters.
Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are called majusculethose using all lower case are called minuscule.
Usually, the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care. The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality.
Share and Use parchment clipart and images from Openclipart. Paper from pulpwood would be treated with acids and other chemicals, and the result were things called imitation parchment, vegetable parchment, imitation parchment, etc. This early stuff probably bore little resemblance to modern parchment paper, but it was semi-transparent and durable. Using the Next button (below) you'll find a total of 2, Roll parchment paper texture background images for you to choose from! Or use the search tool above to find other images illustrating almost anything you can imagine.
On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may also be cursivethat is, use little or no pen-lift.
Modern variations[ edit ] In the context of library sciencea manuscript is defined as any hand-written item in the collections of a library or an archive. Such manuscript collections are described in finding aids, similar to an index or table of contents to the collection, in accordance with national and international content standards such as DACS and ISAD G.
In other contexts, however, the use of the term "manuscript" no longer necessarily means something that is hand-written. By analogy a typescript has been produced on a typewriter.Download parchment paper background stock photos.
Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Don't panic! The free parchment patterns page hasn't gone, it is just moving location. We have launched a new digital download store called Perfect Pattern Box.. Perfect Pattern Box is an online shop where you can download PDF patterns to print.
Collection of Old Paper Textures, Parchment Paper and Old Wallpaper Backgrounds.
Here is a collection of one the most popular backgrounds used in photoshop for texturing photos and pictures. Paper from pulpwood would be treated with acids and other chemicals, and the result were things called imitation parchment, vegetable parchment, imitation parchment, etc.
This early stuff probably bore little resemblance to modern parchment paper, but it was semi-transparent and durable. antique paper (91 items found) SORT BY: Narrow By: clear all Paper; Use these antique parchment style craft papers to help illustrate poems and short stories using medieval letter-sets and scripts, to draw out an antiqued family tree, family coat of arms, or a realistic treasure map Elegant gold parchment background with a ornamental.
I ordered this parchment paper to print my band's programs on for a Halloween special that we put on, and they turned out excellent (see photos).