His mother died shortly thereafter and his father was killed in the Battle of the Marne inso Ricoeur and his sister were reared by their paternal grandparents and an unmarried aunt in Rennes. They were devout members of the French Reformed Protestant tradition.
Types[ edit ] In contemporary philosophy a distinction is made between critical philosophy of history also known as analytic and speculative philosophy of history. The names of these types are derived from C. Sometimes critical philosophy of history is included under historiography.
Philosophy of history should not be confused with the history of philosophywhich is the study of the development of philosophical ideas in their historical context. Accordingly, classical historians felt a duty to ennoble the world.
In keeping with philosophy of history, it is clear that their philosophy of value imposed upon their process of writing history—philosophy influenced method and hence product.
Herodotus, regarded by some[ who? History was supposed to teach good examples for one to follow. The assumption that history "should teach good examples" influenced how writers produced history.
In the fourteenth century, Ibn Khaldunwho is considered one of the fathers of the philosophy of history, discussed his philosophy of history and society in detail in his Muqaddimah His work represents a culmination of earlier works by medieval Islamic sociologists in the spheres of Islamic ethicspolitical scienceand historiographysuch as those of al-Farabi c.
He introduced a scientific method to the philosophy of history which Dawood considers something "totally new to his age" and he often referred to it as his "new science",  which is now associated with historiography.
His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of the statecommunicationpropagandaand systematic bias in history.
Starting with Fustel de Coulanges — and Theodor Mommsen —historical studies began to move towards a more modern scientific[ citation needed ] form. In the Victorian erahistoriographers debated less whether history was intended to improve the readerand more on what causes turned history and how one could understand historical change.
Cyclical and linear history[ edit ] Further information: Social cycle theory Narrative history tends to follow an assumption of linear progression: Many ancient cultures held mythical concepts of history and of time that were not linear.
Such societies saw history as cyclical, with alternating Dark and Golden Ages. Plato taught the concept of the Great Yearand other Greeks spoke of aeons eons. According to Jainismthis world has no beginning or end but goes through cycles of upturns utsarpini and downturns avasarpini constantly.
Many Greeks believed that just as mankind went through four stages of character during each rise and fall of history so did government. The story of the Fall of Man from the Garden of Edenas recounted and elaborated in Judaism and Christianitypreserves traces of a moral cycle; this would give the basis for theodicies which attempt to reconcile the existence of evil in the world with the existence of a God, providing a global explanation of history with belief in a coming Messianic Age.
Some theodicies claimed that history had a progressive direction leading to an eschatological end, such as the Apocalypseorganized by a superior power. Leibniz based his explanation on the principle of sufficient reasonwhich states that anything that happens, does happen for a specific reason.
In this way theodicies explained the necessity of evil as a relative element that forms part of a larger plan of history. Confronted with the antique problem of future contingentsLeibniz invented the theory of " compossible worlds ", distinguishing two types of necessity, to cope with the problem of determinism.
During the Renaissancecyclical conceptions of history would become common, with proponents illustrating decay and rebirth by pointing to the decline of the Roman Empire. Cyclical conceptions continued in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in the works of authors such as Oswald Spengler —Nikolay Danilevsky —and Paul Kennedy —who conceived the human past as a series of repetitive rises and falls.
Spengler, like Butterfieldwhen writing in reaction to the carnage of the First World War of —, believed that a civilization enters upon an era of Caesarism  after its soul dies. The development of mathematical models of long-term secular sociodemographic cycles revived interest in cyclical theories of history see, for example, Historical Dynamics by Peter Turchinor Introduction to Social Macrodynamics  by Andrey Korotayev et al.
Sustainable history[ edit ] "Sustainable History and the Dignity of Man" is a philosophy of history proposed by Nayef Al-Rodhanwhere history is defined as a durable progressive trajectory in which the quality of life on this planet or all other planets is premised on the guarantee of human dignity for all at all times under all circumstances.
Among other things, human dignity means having a positive sense of self and instilling individuals with respect for the communities to which they belong. Basic welfare provision and security are fundamental to ensuring human dignity.
Environment and ecological considerations need to be addressed as well. Finally, cultural diversity, inclusiveness and participation at all levels, of all communities are key imperatives of human dignity.
Within this civilisation are many geo-cultural domains that comprise sub-cultures. Nayef Al-Rodhan envisions human civilisation as an ocean into which the different geo-cultural domains flow like rivers, "The Ocean Model of one Human Civilization".
At points where geo-cultural domains first enter the ocean of human civilisation, there is likely to be a concentration or dominance of that culture.
However, over time, all the rivers of geo-cultural domains become one.Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that inquires into the essence of human nature and the human condition. In making this inquiry it seeks to unify or critique philosophically the diverse scientific methods and humanistic approaches to answering the question of human nature.
17 Ricoeur, “Existence and Hermeneutics,” in The Conflict of Interpretations: Essays in Hermeneutics, All the words and passages rendered in italics in this paper are italicized by. Tables of Contents of Collected Essays and Festschriften on the Gospel and Epistles of John.
Paul Ricoeur (—) Paul Ricoeur was among the most impressive philosophers of the 20th century continental philosophers, both in the unusual breadth and depth of his philosophical scholarship and in the innovative nature of his thought.
Sternberg Press, Books. Ane Hjort Guttu Writings, Conversations, Scripts Writings, Conversations, Scripts is the first survey of text works by Ane Hjort Guttu. Written between and , the texts range from public statements, poetic short prose, and film scripts to reflections on the role of the artist and essays on art for children.
Paul Ricoeur () is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Chicago and Dean of the Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences at the University of Paris X, Nanterre. One of the foremost contemporary French philosophers, his work is influenced by Husserl, Marcel and Jaspers and is /5(6).