Safra Working Papers, No. In creating unfair advantages, doping distorts the level playing field in sporting competition. With higher stakes involved, such distortions create negative externalities not only on the individual level lasting health damages, for example but also frictions on the aggregate level such as loss of media interest and erode the principle of sports.
Can anabolic steroids affect an athlete's health? What are anabolic steroids? They are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, a natural male hormone. Most healthy males produce between 2 to 10 milligrams of testosterone a day.
The hormone's anabolic effect promotes retention of nitrogen, and this helps muscle growth. It helps the male reproductive system to grow during puberty, assists with the growth of body hair, and the deepening of the voice.
Today, anabolic steroids are chemically manufactured. Steroids can be administered by injection, or can be taken orally.
Injectable steroids are longer lasting in the body and can be detected in the body for a longer period of time. How do anabolic steroids work in the body?
The body produces testosterone predominantly in the testes in the male, and adrenal glands in the female. During puberty the testes 20 or 40 fold increase compared to early childhood levels release testosterone.
This hormone is largely responsible for the changes in muscle, bone structure and density.
Who uses anabolic steroids and why? When athletes use steroids they might believe that steroids will give them a "winning edge," in developing their power and strength, and increase recovery from heavy workouts. Fuller and LaFountain found that athletes rationalized their use by trying to justify that using steroids caused no harm either to themselves or to others.
Also, individuals perceived their competitors were taking anabolic drugs, so they needed to use to compete at the same level. Some individuals use steroids because they perceive that increased muscle mass improves their appearance Yesalis, Mottram has suggested that social norms about "bigger being better," feelings of inadequacy, and low self-esteem may influence the younger generation's use of steroids.
How prevalent is the use of steroids? Surveys and anecdotal evidence indicate that the rate of non-medical steroid use may be increasing. Reports of steroid use indicate that betweenand 1 million individuals use.
According to Yesalis more thanused steroids during one year. The National Institute of Health reported that 2. Which anabolic drugs does the NCAA ban?
Examples of anabolic steroids banned by the NCAA are:The survey found that 20 percent of those surveyed suggested that professional athletes would influence their decision to use anabolic steroids (Hoffman et al., ).
When asked whether use by professional athletes would influence their friends’ decisions to use, that . In this sense, the use of steroids—designer or anabolic—can be highly damaging to the bodies and minds of developing high school and college athletes.
In terms of unfair advantages, steroids create a rift in the integrity of competitive sports. Steroid and growth hormone use tend to promote a muscular appearance in users. Teens with body image issues are especially vulnerable to the appeal of steroids.
Societal expectations leave high school athletes desiring to look brawny — for sports, for dates and for confidence.4/5(1). When a professional athlete admits to using steroids, the message young athletes hear is not always the one that is intended.
Young athletes often believe that steroid use by their role models gives them permission to use. Sports Psych Exam 4. Sports Psychology, GSU, Czech. STUDY. PLAY. If we look at high school and college athletes' use of steroids, certain gender differences appear.
These are that A recent model for drug use in sports (drugs in sport decision model) has the three components of costs, benefits, and. The pressure to win placed on these athletes by parents, coaches, and friends may also influence their decision to use steroids (Terney, ).
Along with taking .