Abstract Background Medication errors are often involved in reported adverse events.
Kinds of certainty There are various kinds of certainty. A belief is psychologically certain when the subject who has it is supremely convinced of its truth. Certainty in this sense is similar to incorrigibility, which is the property a belief has of being such that the subject is incapable of giving it up.
But psychological certainty is not the same thing as incorrigibility. A belief can be certain in this sense without being incorrigible; this may happen, for example, when the subject receives a very compelling bit of counterevidence to the previously certain belief and gives it up for that reason.
Moreover, a belief can be incorrigible without being psychologically certain. For example, a mother may be incapable of giving up the belief that her son did not commit a gruesome murder, and yet, compatible with that inextinguishable belief, she may be tortured by doubt.
A second kind of certainty is epistemic. Roughly characterized, a belief is certain in this sense when it has the highest possible epistemic status. Epistemic certainty is often accompanied by psychological certainty, but it need not be.
It is possible that a subject may have a belief that enjoys the highest possible epistemic status and yet be unaware that it does. In such a case, the subject may feel less than the full confidence that her epistemic position warrants. I will say more below about the analysis of epistemic certainty and its relation to psychological certainty.
Some philosophers also make use of the notion of moral certainty see Markie Thus characterized, moral certainty appears to be epistemic in nature, though it is a lesser status than epistemic certainty. Understood in this way, it does not appear to be a species of knowledge, given that a belief can be morally certain and yet false contra Markiep.
Rather, on this view, for a belief to be morally certain is for it to be subjectively rational to a high degree.
Although all three kinds of certainty are philosophically interesting, it is epistemic certainty that has traditionally been of central importance.
In what follows, then, I shall focus mainly on this kind of certainty. Conceptions of certainty There have been many different conceptions of certainty. Each of them captures some central part of our intuitive understanding of certainty, but, as we shall see, none of them is free from problems.
Certainty is often explicated in terms of indubitability. This has been done in a variety of ways. Descartes then concludes that the proposition that he himself exists is true whenever he considers it.
However, even if Descartes took this view of the certainty of the cogito, he did not accept the general claim that certainty is grounded in indubitability. Matters are complicated, however, by the fact that Descartes also says in the Third Meditation that certainty depends on knowing that God exists and is not a deceiver.Like knowledge, certainty is an epistemic property of beliefs.
(In a derivative way, certainty is also an epistemic property of subjects: S is certain that p just in case S's belief that p is certain.) Although some philosophers have thought that there is no difference between knowledge and certainty, it has become increasingly common to distinguish them. knowledge and certainty in the foundation of cartesian natural philosophy mihnea dobre1 abstract.
One of the most appealing features of Descartes’s natural philosophy was its origin in a strong-justificatory metaphysical foundation.
Similarly to knowledge, certainty or confidence is suggested as being the most important aspect of a deeper understanding of perceived risk (Mitchell, ), and Dowling and Staelin (, p. ) discuss uncertainty as one of the most basic attributes of perceived risk.
The term certainty is often used to describe knowledge without the possibility of doubt. This is omniscience.
It is an improper use of the term. Certainty could have no meaning when applied to an omniscient being, since it wouldn't have the capacity for doubt. It only has meaning when applied to human beings.
Jul 26, · Medication knowledge was in this context used as a common term, including the disciplines of pharmacology (pharmacokinetics and dynamics), drug management (regulations, storage, preparation of drugs and administration to patients) and drug dose calculation, and each discipline consisted of different topics. Regarding the illustration, I think you are asserting that knowledge requires certainty and in order to have knowledge, a claim is needed. I have already addressed that in my article. I think you are missing the point that we are not talking about his emotional conviction on how he will do on the test, but rather the knowledge of the content of the test itself. Similarly to knowledge, certainty or confidence is suggested as being the most important aspect of a deeper understanding of perceived risk (Mitchell, ), and Dowling and Staelin (, p. ) discuss uncertainty as one of the most basic attributes of perceived risk.
(philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge is acquired by reason without resort to experience. atheism. to reach certainty one most go through all of their beliefs and get rid of all the bad one,start over on a foundation of truths Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by.
– This study contributes to the literature by simultaneously examining the roles of perceived certainty, manipulated risk and knowledge within a satisfaction‐purchase intention relationship.