Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration Business and industrialization centered on the cities. The ever increasing number of factories created an intense need for labor, convincing people in rural areas to move to the city, and drawing immigrants from Europe to the United States.
Neolithic-era domestication of plants and animals eventually led to improved methods of cultivation and stock breeding, which eventually produced a surplus and made it possible to sustain a higher population density while also freeing up some… The definition of what constitutes a city changes from time to time and place to place, but it is most usual to explain the term as a matter of demographics.
The United Nations has recommended that countries regard all places with more than 20, inhabitants living close together as urban; but, in fact, nations compile their statistics on the basis of many different standards. Whatever the numerical definition, it is clear that the course of human history has been marked by a process of accelerated urbanization.
It was not until the Neolithic period, roughly 10, years ago, that humans were able to form permanent settlements. Even 5, years ago the only such settlements on the globe were small, semipermanent villages of peasant farmers, towns whose size was limited by the fact that they had to move whenever the soil nearby was exhausted.
It was not until the time of classical antiquity that cities of more thanexisted, and even these did not become common until the sustained population explosion of the last three centuries.
The little towns of ancient civilizations, both in the Old World and the New, were only Topics industrialization urbanization and globalization because of improvements in agriculture and transportation.
As farming became more productive, it produced a surplus of food. The development of means of transportation, dating from the invention of the wheel in about bc, made it possible for the surplus from the countryside to feed urban populations, a system that continues to the present day.
Despite the small size of these villages, the people in early towns lived quite close together. Distances could be no greater than an easy walk, and nobody could live out of the range of the water supply.
In addition, because cities were constantly subject to attack, they were quite often walled, and it was difficult to extend barricades over a large area. Archaeological excavations have suggested that the population density in the cities of bc may have been as much asper square mile 49, per square km ; by contrast, the present cities of Calcutta and Shanghaiwith densities of more than 70, per square mile, are regarded as extremes of overcrowding.
With few exceptions, the elite—the aristocrats, government officials, clergy, and the wealthy—lived in the centre of ancient cities, which was usually located near the most important temple.
Farther out were the poor, who were sometimes displaced beyond the city walls altogether. The greatest city of antiquity was Romewhich at its height in the 3rd century ad covered almost 4 square miles 10 square km and had at leastinhabitants.
To provide for this enormous population, the empire constructed a system of aqueducts that channeled drinking water from hills as far away as 44 miles 70 km. Inside the city itself, the water was pumped to individual homes through a remarkable network of conduits and lead pipes, the equal of which was not seen until the 20th century.
As in most early cities, Roman housing was initially built from dried clay molded about wooden frameworks. As the city grew, it began to include structures made from mud, brick, concrete, and, eventually, finely carved marble. This general model of city structure continued until the advent of the Industrial Revolutionalthough medieval towns were rarely as large as Rome.
In the course of time, commerce became an increasingly important part of city life and one of the magnets that drew people from the countryside. With the invention of the mechanical clock, the windmill and water mill, and the printing pressthe interconnection of city inhabitants continued apace.
Cities became places where all classes and types of humanity mingled, creating a heterogeneity that became one of the most celebrated features of urban life. The technological explosion that was the Industrial Revolution led to a momentous increase in the process of urbanization.
Larger populations in small areas meant that the new factories could draw on a big pool of workers and that the larger labour force could be ever more specialized. By the 19th century there were thousands of industrial workers in Europe, many of them living in the most miserable conditions.
Attracted by the promise of paid work, immigrants from rural areas flooded into cities, only to find that they were forced to live in crowded, polluted slums awash with refuse, disease, and rodents.
Designed for commerce, the streets of the newer cities were often arranged in grid patterns that took little account of human needs, such as privacy and recreation, but did allow these cities to expand indefinitely.
One result of continued economic development and population growth could be the creation, in the next years, of megalopolises —concentrations of urban centres that may extend for scores of miles. Evidence of this phenomenon has appeared on the east coast of the United States, where there may eventually be a single urban agglomeration stretching from Boston to Washington, D.
See also urban planning. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:The most widely agreed upon social impact of industrialization is urbanization; urbanization is the increase (both in population and in size) in the urban area.
It is caused by rural migration, which is itself caused by . Watch video lessons to explore the development of urbanization, industrialization, modernization and globalization. Review the causes of the.
Global Industrialization & Culture - Chapter Summary the social impacts of urbanization, the spread of industrialization and much more. You can reinforce your understanding of these topics.
Drawbacks of Globalization, Technology Expansion among Topics Highlighted, at Second Committee, Economic and Social Council Joint Meeting. Urbanization, Industrialization, Modernization and Globalization Chapter Exam Instructions.
Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Aug 23, · The Topics of Industrialization, Urbanization, and GlobalizationK.
TurnerThe topics of industrialization, urbanization, and globalization are inextricably linked. The evolution of industrialization spawned the /5(12).